Historical Timeline

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We present this historical timeline. We are still adding to this timeline so check back for current updates. It is an effort to show the many changes, alliances, historic events, evolution of race identification, governmental patterns and specifically how our Notoweega family / Allied Peoples, has been infused in all these events. (Most events can be verified, by simply "google-ling" selected events.)

circa 1459 Iroquois League according to Onondaga.
1534 First encounters with Europeans. The Cherokee as “Ani-Suwa‟li”, or “the Suwali people.” The Cheraw Tribe was actually a loose confederation of tribes who all spoke a version of the Siouan language. Known by such general names as the Cheroenhaka, Esaw, Isaw, Sara, and Saraw, this confederacy of eastern Siouan peoples included the Manahoac, Hassinunga, Shakori, Eno, Meherrin, Nahyssan, Nottaway, Occaneechi, Saponi, and Tutelo.
1540 De Soto visits Creek Town. Ranjel mentions as a town near Cofitachequi where the bulk of De Soto's army was sent for provisions.
1570 Iroquois War.
1590 Colony at Roanoke and all were eventually absorbed into the surrounding American Indian tribes. By the time the census came around, all of the people were gone. The ordeal became known as the lost colony and it's people "Croatans."
  Hurons receive new Nations.
1600 Nottaway or Notowega: 1,500.
1607 Jamestown, Virginia, founded.
1608 "Thomas Mayle" is listed on the 2nd Virginia Charter at Jamestown.
1610 French missionaries, of the Jesuit r order. They found a village of the Ottawas near Parent Creek (afterward named " Bloody Run "), and " Conner's Creek." The Hurons occupied the present site of Detroit. The Ottawas also controlled Belle Isle. The Pottawatomies were the most powerful and not only controlled Grosse Isle, but also the lake country, embraced in the present county of Oakland. The whole territory of what became Michigan was inhabited by the following Indian tribes: Ottawas, Ojibewas, Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Hurons and Miamis. The Iroquois composed the five nations, and the Delawares called themselves " Leni Leapes " (original men), and claimed to be Grandfathers of over forty Indian nations. The "Delewares" were always allies of the English, and were considered by the English as representing the intelligence and were the most cultivated of all the other tribes. They were the controlling influence among the  tribes constituting the five nations, and were direct opponents of those constituting the tribes favoring French supremacy. The name given to Detroit by the Indians was Waweatonong.
1613 Found four houses built "at Manhattan isle, in Hudson's River." These, it would seem, were the buildings erected to house the crew of the burned "Tiger," while they were building the yacht "Onrust." It does not seem that Christiaensen, who was apparently in supreme charge of the American operations of the grouped Dutch merchants, erected a fort on Manhattan at that time. The fort erected in 1614 or 1615, on Castle Island, at the head of navigation, was probably the first built by the Dutch in New Netherland.
  The Two Row Wampum Treaty, also known as Guswhenta or Kaswhenta and as the Tawagonshi Agreement of 1613 or the Tawagonshi Treaty, is an agreement said to have been made between representatives of the Five Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) and representatives of the Dutch government
1614 Carauntouan at war.
1615 Champlain attacks Onieda Fort.
  Champlain and Father Joseph le Caron visit Huron, French refer to them as Agnonha or Iron Men.
1616 Daillon visits the Neutrals.
1617 Treaty of Tawasentha, the first to be completed between Indians and the Hollanders, "was signed" in 1617, "in all the solemn forms of Indian diplomacy." The Mohawks were the prime movers of the treaty, but at the invitation of the Iroquois confederacy many other subordinate tribes attended the council. The supremacy of the Five Confederated Nations was acknowledged by the lesser tribes represented, and the solemn treaty of amity and alliance with the Dutch was signed. There was an interesting ceremonial. The Belt of Peace was held fast at one end by the Iroquois and at the other by the Dutch, the lesser parties resting under its middle. The calumet was smoked, and the tomahawk buried. Over it the Dutch declared that "they would erect a church, so that none should dig it up again."
1622 Champlain reports Peace Between Iroquois and Algonquins.
1624 Iroquois and Algonquins conclude peace.
1626 Mahicans drive out Mohawks from their lower Castle on the Mohawk River east of Schoharie Creek.
1627 Seneca kill French Ambassador and Canadian Indians, Iroquois and Algonquins resume warring.
1630 Van Rensselear, a Dutchman, takes advantage of the Mohicans leaving the area because of war, acquires much of their land. The Dutch soon learned to make Wampum using better methods. (unfair business practices).
1630-1700 Beaver War. grew out of a struggle over the fur trade, but soon passed beyond that. Thousands of refugees (Huron, Tionontati, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Mascouten, Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo) fled west and relocated to northern Wisconsin and upper Michigan. Similar pressures also forced the Ojibwe (Chippewa) to expand their territory south and west from Sault Ste. Marie.
1632 War with Canadian Indians continue.
1633 Senekas defeat Hurons.
1635 A group of Monongahela refugees resettled in south-central Virginia at Halifax County.
1637 The Pequot War - In 1633 the English Puritan settlements at Plimoth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies had begun expanding into the rich Connecticut River Valley to accommodate the steady stream of new emigrants from England. Other than the hardship of the journey and the difficulty of building homes in what the Puritans consider a wilderness, only one major obstacle threatened the security of the expanding settlements: the Pequots. English Puritan troops, with the help of Mohegan and Narragansett allies, burned the village and killed the estimated 400-700 Pequots inside.
1641 Governor Montmagny build forts along the Sorel and Iroqouis River.
1643 Two thousand warriors of the Neutral Nation attacked a town of the Nation of Fire.
1645 Captain William Claiborne tried unsuccessfully to establish treaty relations with the Rappahannocks, as the Rappahannocks had not participated in the Pamunkey-led uprising in 1644, and the English wanted to `treat with the Rappahannocks or any other Indians not in amity with Opechancanough, concerning serving the county against the Pamunkeys.
  Algonquins make peace with the Dutch at "New Amsterdam".
1646 Hurons request aid of the kindred Anadastes against the Iroqouis.
1647 Hurons made an aggressive alliance with the Susquehannocks, who agreed to lift the hatchet when the Hurons gave the word.
1649 Petuns are defeated to ruins.
1650-60 The Anadastes War.
1650 - 1651 Neutrals are dispersed.
1652 Mahicans settlement at Schaghictoke.
1654 Eries are dispersed.
1654-56 Saponi war in Virginia.
1657 The English forced most of the Powhatan remnants onto reservations in Virginia.
1658 "Sturgeon War" between Menominee and the Ojibwe.
1660 Mohawks invite Indians living near New Amsterdam to come and live with them, and made a southern journey to reconcile the Minquas and Senecas.
  Father Reni Mesnard established a church at the Bay St. Theresa, on the south shore of Lake Superior. He was lost in the forests of Keweenaw. Subsequently his cassock and breviary were found in the possession of the Soux. The Indian tribes about Detroit were the Hurons, Ottawas, Ojibewas, Pottawatomies, Ollogamies and Mascoutins.
1662 Mohawks and Oniedas send a party against the Ottowas, they are defeated by the Sauteurs.
  Andastes referred to as Minquas, the Black Minquas come to their aid, so called Black Minquas, the Eries being the Black Minquas. so named from their black badges.
1664 First treaty between Iroqouis and English in New York.
  Governor Couercelle goes against the Mohawks. Learning the Mohawks and Oniedas left for war against the Wampum-makers.
1666 Covenant Chain - Iroqouis and English.
  New France, in order to punish the Iroquois for their raids on her fur fleets, launched two expeditions under Courcelles and Tracy. The first was a failure; but the second, though it encountered few Mohawks (they having wisely vanished into the woods) burned villages and destroyed quantities of stored corn.
  French missions of the Black Robes resumed.
1667 Ottowawaes Dionendadees & Twichtwicks came & gave Presents to Govr. Nicolls Desyreing that ye 5 nations may open a Path for them to come & Trade wth ye English ; which they did & "diverse men" have been here from time to time of those far nations of Indians. Albany, N.Y.
1668 Wappingers join Mohawks against the Mahicans.
1671 Kandiaronk a young man in his twenties, Later Huron Chief known as the Rat, with the Wyandot finally settled at Michilimakinac.
1672 Sixty young Andaste (Susquehannocks, Conestogas), of the class known as "Burnt-Knives," or "Soft-Metals routes Senecas and Cayugas.
  Mohawks and Mahicans conclude a Peace Treaty in Albany.
1675 Anadastes are overborne by the Seneca.
  Conestoga (Anadastes) at war with Virginia and Maryland.
  Nottoway's and Meherrins send warriors to assist the English against the Susquehannocks.
  King Philips War is raging.
  Seneca wish to exterminate the Susquehannas or Anadastes. But Mohawks said they were their brothers and children and might live with them.
  Bacon's Rebellion, began with a raid by the Doeg Indians on the plantation of Thomas Mathews, located in the Northern Neck section of Virginia near the Potomac River. Several of the Doegs were killed in the raid, which began in a dispute over the nonpayment of some items Mathews had apparently obtained from the tribe. The situation became critical when, in a retaliatory strike by the colonists, they attacked the wrong Indians, the Susquehanaugs, which caused large scale Indian raids to begin.
  "Menheyricks." (Meherrin) named after the river where they were found. After the disruption of the Susquehana Indians, a part of them seem to have joined this tribe, giving rise to the belief that the latter were all of Susquehanna or Conestoga descent.
1676 Susquehannocks Finding themselves surrounded by enemies on all sides, a portion of them abandoned their country and took refuge with the Occaneechi on Roanoke river, while the rest remained in Pennsylvania. A quarrel occurred soon with the Occaneechi, who made common cause with the whites against the fugitive Conestoga, who were compelled to return to Susquehanna river and submit to the Iroquois.
1676 The Swedes and Dutch called theuadroque, Sasquesahanough, Testnigh, and Utchowig. The Meherrin, on the river of that name in south east Virginia, were officially reported to be am Minqua.
1675-76 Attaock, Carantouan, Cepowig, Quadroque, Sasquesahanough, Testnigh, and Utchowig. The Meherrin, on the river of that name in south east were officially reported to be a band of the Conestoga driven south by the Virginians during Bacon's rebellion.
1677 Treaty of Peace, Susquehannas and Iroqouis.
  Treaty of Peace, between Charles II, Queen of Pamunkey, Queen of Waonoke, Chief of the Nancymond Indians, Chief of the Nottoways and Captain John West, Son of the Queen of Pamunkey. XVI. That every Indian King and Queen in the month of March every yeare with some of theire great men tender their obedience to the R’t Honourable his Majesties Govern’r at the place of his residence, wherever it shall be, and then and there pay the accustomed rent of twentie beaver skinns, to the Govern’r and alsoe their quit rent aforesaid, in acknowledgment that they hold their Crownes, and Lands of the great King of England. Signatories of this treaty were deemed “sovereign subjects of the crown”. As recently as the first decade of the 21st century this treaty was applied to a court case involving Virginia Indians.
1682 The Virginia Colonial Council established a reservation for the Rappahannock Indians of 3,474 acres`about the town where they dwelt.
  Treaty at Albany between Iroqouis and Maryland.
  Proposal made to The Mahikander and Esopus Indians, otherwise called Warrenacockse, and to the Catskill Indians by Col. Philemon Lloyd and Colonel Henry Coursey, for the right honorable Lord Baltimore, Lord Proprietor of Maryland, and all his Majesty's subjects of Virginia and Maryland, in the Courthouse of Albany, the 19th of July. Names of ye Mahikander Sachims. Wickepee, Joris, Machanuk, Watt hawitt, Puhketay a Squae, Snotce & kehomahak. The Cattskills Sachims, Skermerhoorn, Mataseet, kochkotee a Squae, fan d Backes, Tatamshait. The Esopus Indians, Culpuwaan, Camirawechak, Mamaruchqua a Squae. Interpreted p mr. Gerret van Slichtenhorst.
  law of 1682 was made known. and it allowed the enslavement of Indians.
1685 Propositions made by the north Indians that are come from Canida being about 56 in number besides: xoo: women & Children there Sachim is called Sadochquis accompanyed with the Indians of Schaghkook in ye Court house of Albany ye I8th of July.
  Piscataway, or Conoy Indians from Maryland, first presented themselves to the Governor and Council in New York City on August 1.
1687 Denonville's invasion of the Seneca country.
1694 Treaty at Albany between Governor Fletcher and the Five Nations.
1696 William Penn transferred the Delaware to the territory, bounding the western branches of the middle reaches of Monongahela River.
1701 Penn makes treaty with the Sachems of Susquehannah Minquas or Conestoga, Shawaneese, Ganawese (Conoy's) or Piscataway's and Brother of Onadaga Sachem.
  The French establish a settlement at Detroit.
  The Montreal Treaty of 1701, which marked a turning point in Iroquois history, came about as a result of the uneasiness felt by the Five Nations at the phenomenal growth and expansion of their English allies. They saw the need of a counter-balancing weight on the international scales.
1702-13 Queen Anne's War.
1706 Vandreuil sends Joncaire to Michilimackinac to maintain peace between the Ottawas and Iroqouis.
1707 Shawnees start back to Kentucky to build their new Eskippaki at Indian Old Fields. In support of this Catahecassa or Black Hoof, tells Colonel John Johnston, the Federal Indian agent amongst the Ohio and Indiana tribes from 1812 to 1842, that his people came from the South where they had lived not far from the sea.
1709 Chiefs of the Mingoes, Ganawese and Delawares on the Susquehanna, purpose going to Onondangas with 24 Belts of Wampum as tributes.
1710 Tuscarora makes petition to the Provincial Government of Pennsylvania. In addition to the Tuscarora emissaries, they found Civility and four other Conestoga chiefs ("Senecas"), and Opessa, *the head chief of the Shawnee. In the presence of these officials the Tuscarora ambassadors delivered. their proposals, attested by eight wampum belts.
1711 Chief Hancock killed 120 colonists on Sept 22, 1711, took others captive, burned houses, and seized crops and livestock in Bath County.  Then white settlers retaliated.  The Tuscarora War was put into motion.
1711-13 Tuscarora War.
1712 The Fox Wars begin, Civil wars between members of the Great Lakes alliance.
1713 The confederated eastern Siouan Nations signed a Treaty of Peace with the Virginia Colonial government at Williamsburg.
  Treaty of Utretch. Series of treaties concluding the War of the Spanish Succession. One series was signed between France and other European powers; another series was signed between Spain and other powers. France concluded treaties with Britain, the Dutch Republic, Prussia, Portugal, and Savoy, in which it ceded various territories, including regions in Canada, to Britain.

France was required to recognize British soverainty over the Iroquois and commerce with the Far Indians was to be open to traders of all nations.
1715 Seventy of the southern Tuscarora went to SC to assist against the Yamasee. Those 70 warriors later asked permission to have their wives and children join them, and settled near Port Royal, SC.
  Waccamaw: 610 in 1715.  Found on the Waccamaw River in NC and the Lower Pee Dee River in SC.  Some may have moved to Lumber River and Green Swamp areas of N.C., with descendants among the Tuscarora, Lumbee and Waccamaw-Siouan.  Population in 2000 was Waccamaw-Siouan 2,000 in Columbus, Bladen Counties, NC.
1716 King Hagler, Catawba Head Sachem. Admits that his people come from so many different Nations, that it is hard to tell whom have which origins, there fore they refer to themselves as the "Yessah" meaning "The People."
1717 Black Hoof. It is estimated he was born in northwest Ohio.
  Conference at Georgetown on Arrowsick Island.
  Treaty at Conestogoe, Present were Gov. Kieth, Richard Hill, Caleb Pusey, Johnathan Dickenson, Col. John Fench, James Logan, Secretary, "with divers gentlemen," Deputies from the Senecas, Onondagas and Csyugas, Interpreters Smith the Gawanese-Indian, John Cartledge and James le Tort.
Governor Keith tells the Conestoga Indians that he has arranged with Virginia to make the Potomac the boundary of the hunting between them and the Virginia Indians. Gheasont, a Seneca complains of the sale of liquor.
1722 Saponi and Tutelo and allied tribes, make treaty at Albany. Peace was declared between the northern Indians (Notoweega) and the Virginia and Carolina tribes, the Blue Ridge and thePotomac being the boundary line.
  The Meiponski, Saponi, Occaneechi, Tutelo, Steakenock (Stegaroki), Catawba living near Fort Christana.
1723 Treaty of Peace and Friendship at Albany, between Pennsylvania and the Chiefs of Indians of the Five Nations.
1728 Two Indian Treaties held at Conestogoe and Philadelphia. Attended by Lt. Gov. Gordon and Indians of the Conestoga, Delaware, Shawnese and Canawese tribes. Over troubles at Mahnatawny Iron Works. Land Issues.
1730 Savannahs move to Ohio.
  Virginia  employs an interpreter to “the Saponi and Occaneechi Indians” as late as 1730.
1732  Lumbee Henry Berry Lowry and James Lowry are granted land on the Lowry Swamp east of the Lumber River.
  Sapony and the Saura Indians living in the Catawba Nation petitioned the colony of Virginia for permission to move to their old home. Virginia granted them the right to return and seat themselves on any land not already granted on the Roanoke or Appomattox Rivers.
1733 "Chief" Micajah Bunch was the King of the Blackwater Melungeonites was born near where the Saponi tribe lived, King Micajah was part Melungeon and part Cherokee. He is believed to be the first melungeon to be in the Newman Ridge area. (Hancock County, Tenn).
  Oglethorpe’s First Treaty with the Lower Creeks at Savannah, May 21.
1734 Saponi were settled at Buttrum Town, Virginia (in modern Pittsylvania County, near Dan River, close to Rockingham county, North Carolina, called "Goinstown." Located near Old Upper Saura or Cheraw Town. Saponi in southern Virginia were associated at times with Nottoway and Nansemond (a band sometimes called "Pochick" or "Pochyackee").
  In Albany, NY. Two Sachems of the Mohoggs waited on his Honour George Clark Esq, in behalf of themselves, Onedes, Onondanges and Tuskararoes desiring that his honour would be pleased.  To review brighten and to strengthen the Covenant Chain.
  Conference at Deerfield, between Governor Belcher and the Caughnawagas, St. Francis, Housstonnoucs, Schatigcokes and Mohegan Tribes. Peace was renewed.
1735 Catawbas threaten the Nottoways.
1738 John Harris as the King of the Cheraw. Gradually merging with the Catawba, this band of Cheraw Indians had a population of 70 people in 1768.
1738-39 Smallpox epidemic ravages Indian population in North Carolina.
1739 England declares war on Spain. American Indians fight the Spanish.
  The Wyandots, a branch of the Huron people, moves into Ohio.
1740 French document mentions, Andasses (Anadastes) among the Cherokee.
  French settle Crown Point.
  George Clark prevails upon the Six Nations to include all Indian Nations lying to the westward and southward as far as the Mississippi in the Covenant Chain. At Albany on the 16th day.
  Cherokee send beads, a pipe, a white flag taken from the French and an Eagles Tail to George Clark to send to the Six Nations desiring peace. Catawba follow suit presenting a Belt of Wampum, Pipe of Peace and Tobacco. As well as the Creeks.
1742 Orange County in 1742 regarding some Saponi Indians accused of hog stealing, "Alexander Macharton, John Bowling, Manicassa, Captain Tom, Isaac, Harry, Blind Tom, Foolish Jack, Charles Griffin, John Collins, Little Jack, Indians, giving security for good behaviour."
  Pennsylvania officials met with Iroquois sachems in council at Lancaster to secure Iroquois alliance. Canassatego, an Iroquois sachem, spoke on behalf of the Six Nations to the Pennsylvania officials.
1743 Talk to Governor Glenn was delivered by "Asaquah, the Head beloved Man of Nautaugue, Connewawtenty of Connetstageh and about Sixty others of Different Towns of Nitiwaga Nation of Indians now in Keowee in the Cherokees."
  Conference between Governor and company of Connecticut and Mohegan Indians. Land issues.
1744 Iroquois relinquished their claims east of the Allegheny Mountains.
  Treaty at Lancaster, between Six Nations over land issues.
  Forces in Canada, Cacknawages about 230, Conessetagoes 60, Attenkins 30, Neperinks 30, Missiquecks 40, Abenaquis at St Francoi 90, Obinacks at Becancourt 50 and Hurons at Lorette 40.
  Maquas make complaints to Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
1745 Treaty at Albany, between Massachusetts, Connecticut and Pennsylvania and the Six Nations.
1746 Notoweega including Nottoway, Conestoga, Meherrin, Shawnees and Cherokees, begin raiding South Carolina Settlements.
  Treaty at Albany, between Governor Clinton and Six Nations, relating to negotiations with the Catawba.
1747 Treaty with delegation of Indians of the Six Nations from the Ohio at Philadelphia.
1748 Andastes are identified as Notoweegas. "A party of Indians known as Notowega or Nittawega" who "fled into Cherokee Country for protection" a "mixed band of Iroqouis, Savannah and Conestoga".
  Treaty at Lancaster, between Pennsylvania and the Twightees, Shawnese and some Six Nations.
  Chickamauga (Lower Cherokee a.k.a. River Tribes) formed an alliance with the Meherrin (Conestoga) and Shawano-Delaware tribes (Notoweega Sachems) under the leadership of Dragging Canoe, Cameron and Black Dog.
  Notoweega along with the Savanahs, Tawes (Odowas), Nantouyas capture Cusabo Indians and George D. Haig, prominent Carolina Indian agent and trader living amongst the Cherokee and Catawbas. Thanayesson, the Seneca chief, in a conversation with Weiser, spoke of the Carolina traders aiding the Catawbas against the war-parties from the Six Nations.
1749 Treaty made at Falmouth, between Penobscots and Norridgewocks. Return of captives.
1750 Birth of Cherokee Sam Norris in Morgantown, West Virginia.
  Northward Indians appeared again, killing four traders as they were bringing away their deer skins from the nation. Another party of them attacked the Catawbas.
  Nottawegas attack trader Jeremiah Swiney and a group of Chickasaws on March 14.
  Nations Pass under the General Name of Nottaweegas, and they are Sometimes called Senecas, but it is certain that besides the five Nations, there are the Delawares and some of the Indians on the Ohio, as well as the Susquehannah, and Virginia Indians, united in this War. Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1750/ 51 . 497.
  Putnam County, The Indian village Tauwas, was called Tawa by the early settlers a portion of the Ottawa Indians were still here, was visited by French missionaries and few traders and their Chief Pedanquit still lived there until 1832, The council house was then standing on the site known as "Indian green."
1751 The Nottawegas in May sent a talk to Glen, written at Keowee, relating the intolerable insult they received when they sought a peace with the Catawbas. A mixture of Savannahs, Iroqouis and Connestoga vowed they would exterminate the Catawbas and were "of one mind never to have peace with them."
  Yuchi retire from Savannah River to Georgia.
  Virginia Gazette. Peace concluded at Albany, Catawba's, Six Nations, The Notoweega's, Seneka's, Mohawk's and other Nations. Cherokees, Savanahs, Creeks and Choctaws.
  The Monthly Chronologer - Article on Notoweega's and Cherokees alliance.
1752 Keowees having first talked of it of removing to live with the Notowegas, some Cherokees went to the lower Shawnoes town on the Ohio, and acquainted them that 1400 of their people intended to come and live with them.
  Treaty at Halifax, between Governor Hopson and the Micmac Indians.
  Treaty at St. George, between Massachusetts and the Penobscots and Norridgewocks.
1753 The Cayuga formally adopted the Saponi and Tutelo.
  Notoweega cease incursions into South Carolina.
  Benjamin Franklin attends a treaty council at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. At this treaty with the Iroquois and Ohio Indians (Twightees, Delawares, Shawnees and Wyandots). On October 1, 1753, he watched the Oneida chief, Scarrooyady, and a Mohawk, Cayanguileguoa, condole the Ohio Indians for their losses against the French. Scarrooyady recounted the origins of the Great Law to the Ohio Indians
  Captain Bull Pipe (Delaware Sachem) son of Tanaghrisson. Arrives near what is later called "Morgantown" with 50 family members after being released from a New York Prison. Possibly relations of Pretty Hair, Cherokee Sam Norris's wife.
1754 Massacre at Buffalo Creek.
  The Cherokee, Catawba and Creeks almost engaged in a large scale war with the Six Nations because of the Notaweegas.
  Conferences held between Governor Shirley and the Norridgewocks and Penobscots at Falmouth. Objections to building a fort on the Kennebec.
  Pearis petitioned Virginia Governor Dinwiddie for a grant of land on Long Island. Dinwiddie was very interested in recruiting Cherokees warriors to join the ongoing British incursions into the Ohio country.
  The French and Indian War erupts as a result of disputes over land in the Ohio River Valley. In May, George Washington leads a small group of American colonists to victory over the French, then builds Fort Necessity in the Ohio territory. In July, after being attacked by numerically superior French forces, Washington surrenders the fort and retreats.
1755 Guyasuta probably served as a scout for young George Washington in 1753, though he played a role in defeating the Braddock Expedition.
  Delaware and Shawnee, remove "Title of Women" dissatisfied with the Albany purchase of Susquehanna lands, no longer to be clad like women, but fight like men for themselves.
1756 Little Carpenter is the head man, a Nuntewa fellow called the great Elk who has resided amongst the Cherokees a long time is sent off to his Nation with some of the Cherokees, some Northern Indians who have resided in this Nation some time are soon to be sent to the Northward.
  Treaty at Crosswick, between Governor of New Jersey and the four tribes of Cranberry, Pompton, Crosswisk and South Jersey. Complaint against sale of rum.
  Treaty at Catawba-Town and Broad-River between Governor of Virginia and the Catawba and Cherokee Indians. Asking both tribes to fight against the French.
  Conference at Philadelphia with Quakers and some of Six Nations, seeking Delawares to make peace.
  Treaty with the Delawares and Shawnese at FT. Johnson in Albany.
  Conference held at Easton, Governors sends a message to the Delawares and Shawnese on the Susquehanna.
  August 3rd, Captain Raymond Demere, consults the reports bearer, Tiftoa, who told him that the large body of Indians were in actuality French allied Nottowagoes and that Old Hop always received the Savannahs as friends.

October 16th. At the English Camp, Tennessee River. The four first Nations herein mentioned are all moved to the Notowagoes, and are in the interest of the English, and as they are all joined together they make a very powerful Nation: Charraws, Sapponeys, Tuskeruras, Nottoways, Nottowagoes: Small Tribes - Colonial Records of South Carolina: Doucments relating to Indian affairs, 1754-1765

1757 400 Catawba's, Cherokees, Tuscaroura's and Nottoways join forces to accompany Virginians.
  Conference at Harris and Lancaster, George Croghan And Sir William Johnson met with Delawares, Nanticokes and Conestogas.
  Virginia governor at Williamsburg received a delegation of Indians including “King Blunt and the thirty-three Tuscaroras, seven Meherrins, two Saponies and thirteen Nottoways.”
  Conference at FT. Johnson with Mohickanders, Shawanese and Naticokes.
  Nottawagas plan attack against Garrison at Fort Loudon and were to appear at the fort acting in a hostile manner, so that the Cherokees would be taken inside for protection. Once in the fort, they would “knock all the Garrison on the Head, sally out and join the Nottiwagas, burn the Fort and proceed to drive all the white People from their Nation.”
  Treaty at Easton, Penn. Governors of Pennsylvania and New Jersey with the Mohawks, Oneydos, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, Tuscarouras, Tuteloes, Nanticokes and Conoys, Chungnuts, Delawares, Unamies, Mohickons, Minisinks and Wapings. 
  Gustavis Croston, born in Hampshire County, the father of the Croston line in Barbour and Taylor Counties. He along with Wilmore Male, Sr., and Henry Dorton or Dalton, served in the Revolutionary War. It was said that Croston was a spy and Indian Scout. We don't know whom he married. Some of the Crostons were called Leather Heads and others were known as Black Dutch.
1758 The commander of Fort Duquesne, Captain François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery, sent a desperate message to his Native allies of the upper Ohio. Sixteen indigenous leaders were then assembled at the village of Kuskuskia on the Allegheny. The Ohioans—a mix of Delawares, Shawnees, and resident Iroquois referred to as Mingos.
  November, the French abandon Fort Duquesne in the Ohio territory.
  Conference at Burlington. Minisink Indians are the subject.
  Indian reservation is founded, in New Jersey, on 3000 acres.
  50 Shawnee, Delaware, Wyandotte, and Mingo Indians divided into three groups and attacked the settlers living on the head of the Roanoke River, the south part of Mayo River, and the head of the Town (Goblintown) Creek. Captured at this time, was Isham Bernat (Barnett) who lived on the north fork of Goblintown Creek and Robert Pusey, a Halifax County officer, who lived on Otter Creek of Smith River. The prisoners were first taken to the New River, then traveled up to the Ohio River Indian towns, and finally were delivered to the French at Fort Detroit. Most of these captives were ransomed and returned to their homes.
1758-59 Cherokee warriors and European settlers clashed on the southern frontiers. Diplomacy failed, and South Carolina declared war on the Cherokee Indians.
1759 Nottawagas send ominous wampum belt depicting three headless Englishmen garnished in red paint to Southern Indians. The Great Mortar (Creek Sachem) approves of Belt.
  Ebitapogola-Mingo, a Choctaw Headman, sends a white wing and Talks to his excellency Henry Ellis, which Trader John Spencer  assured he received from him, in the upper Creek Nation at Mucclasse Town. Mentions of Treaty of peace with the English and refers to Creeks as Nation of Brothers. The Creeks, also condemning their trade with the French hoping to resume trading with the English.
  Choctaws and Britain signed a formal treaty. Delegates representing all three Choctaw divisions agreed to maintain peace with the Creeks and Chickasaws and to protect British traders visiting their towns.
  Sir William Johnson gave a silver gorget to the Bunts grandson Punch, who was appointed chief by his grandfather.
1760 Henry Ellis esq, Georgia Governor, outfit the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Uchee, for War against the Cherokee.
  Creeks refer to Cherokees as relations. Much to the dismay of the Choctaw.
  10 Headman for the Creek Nation gave talks at the Governors House and Savannah Council of desires for peace amongst all Indian Nations. Informs the Governor if the Cherokees themselves do not want peace, that other armies as well as the Notowegas are ready to fall upon them.
  Governour Gage of Montreal, mentions Notoweegas as honored friends to Wolf King, Creek Chief, lived in Muklasa, an Upper Creek town and Silverheels.
  Report counted 20 Saponi warriors in the area of Granville County, NC and this corresponds to the “Mulatto, Mustee or Indian” taxation in Granville of such families as Anderson, Jeffries, Davis, Chavis, Going, Bass, Harris, Brewer, Bunch, Griffin, Pettiford, Evans.
  Isaac Kennedy or Cannady was born in Maryland. He marries Mary Runner, Great Granddaughter of Famed Revolutionary War Capt. Daniel Rieff and a Pennsylvainia Indian woman by the name of "Catherine Dice." from Olney.  Isaac is the father of the Kennedy line of the Guineas. His son was born in Hampshire County, Virginia in 1800. His wife was Elizabeth Male.
1761 Gun Merchant, A Creek Sachem, speaks of friendship with Mohawks and Northern Tribes and also wish to remain neutral when it comes to the Cherokees. States - We know that the Nottawagees gave the Governor of Charles Town and a Strap of Wampum and a Peace Talk.
  James Male, Sr., born Abt. 1761; died Bet. 1820 - 1830.James was a hunter and trapper who travelled the mountains between what is now the Morgantown area of Monongalia County, West Virginia, out to the territory of Ohio between the late 1790's to the 1820's. It is said that he married the daughter of an Indian Scout for the United States Army. She belonged to the Cherokee Nation. James became one of the patriarchs of the Male line that settled in the Ohio Valley near Marietta, Washington County, Ohio, in the middle 1800'.
  Conference at Easton with Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas, Nanticokes, Mohicans, Delawares, Tuteloes and Conoys. Questions about law and captives.
1762 Conference at Lancaster in August with Northern and Western Indians. Exchange of captives and Connecticut claims to Wyoming. In attendance were the Delaware, Shawnese, Twightees, Wawachtanies, Tuscaroras, Kickapos, Senecas, Onondagas, Vayugas, Oneidas and Conoys. Teedyuscung was again in evidence and his affairs were finally disposed of.
1763 Remnants of Anadastes, called Conestogas attacked by the Paxton Boys.
  Fall of New France.
  Treaty of Augusta, the British had promised to execute colonists found guilty of murdering Indians, and in each colony, a single case of murder resulted in an execution during this period.
  Paris Peace Treaty ending the Seven Years’ War.
  The Proclamation of 1763, signed by King George III of England, prohibits any English settlement west of the Appalachian mountains and requires those already settled in those regions to return east in an attempt to ease tensions with Native Americans
  In May, the Ottawa Native Americans under Chief Pontiac begin all-out warfare against the British west of Niagara, destroying several British forts and conducting a siege against the British at Detroit. In August, Pontiac's forces are defeated by the British near Pittsburgh. The siege of Detroit ends in November, but hostilities between the British and Chief Pontiac continue for several years.
1764 Cherokee Sam Norris and Pretty Hair (Delaware Indian / FB Lenape) relocate to "Hackers Creek" or "Wiya Nipe."
  Michilmackinac is captured by the Chippewas, led by Minnawauna.
1765 The Saponi are mentioned as having 30 warriors living at Tioga, about Sayre, Pa., and other villages on the northern branches of the Susquehanna.
  Colonial Law to Curb Unlicensed Trade with the Indians, March 25, EAID XVI, 420-21.
1766 Mingo Town near Stubenville, Ohio, contained over 60 families.
  Cherokees at war with Nottoweegas, Savamigas, Twightwees, Tawas, Yachtanues and Kickapoos..
  Wilmer Maile listed in the Maryland, Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly, 1766-1768.
1767 Cherokees entreat with Northern Indians in N.Y.
  Gideon Gibson escaped the penalties of the Negro law by producing upon comparison more of the red and white in his face than can be discovered in the faces of half the descendants of the French refugees in our House of Assembly.. Gideon's son, Gideon Gibson (II) was living on the south side of the PeeDee River at a place called Duck Pond. On July 25, 1767 as a leader of the Regulators, Gideon was involved in a skirmish with a constable's party near Marr's Bluff on the Pee Dee River. The South Carolina Gazette reported in 15 Aug 1768 that Gibson's band of Regulator's was composed of; "gang of banditi, a numerous collection of outcast Mulattos, Mustees, Free Negroes, etc. all horse theives from the borders of Virginia and other northern Colonies...headed by one Gideon Gibson..."
1768 Tecumseh is born at "Hackers Creek".
  Treaty of Fort Stanwix. Iroqouis give up their remaining claims to West Virginia. Delaware Indians, the Mingo Indians, and the Shawnee Indians. These tribes claimed that the Iroquois, who did not even live in the Ohio Country, did not have the right to negotiate for the other tribes.
  Attakullakulla and Cherokees head to New York by sloop, under mediation of General Gage and Sir William Johnson in Mohawk country to conclude peace with the Six Nations and Canadian Nations, then on to Pittsburgh to conclude a peace treaty with the Delawares and Shawnees. 
  Conference at Ft. Pitt in April and May. Between George Croghan, Deputy Agent for Indian Affiars, and Indian of the Six Nations attended. Shawnese, Munseys and Mohicans. Over 1000 Indians attended. Henry Montour was interpreter. One interesting case  waas a settlement made at Redstone Creek by some Pennsylvanians. They were ordered to leave by the Governor but the Indians objected and asked them to remain.
  Treaty with the Cherokee at Hard Labor, South Carolina in October, the British government purchased most of the tribal holdings east of the New River in southwest Virginia.
1770 John Donelson's line, surveyed after the treaty of Lochaber with the Indians, 1770, crossed the road here. This line separated Indian territory from land open to settlement. Violations of the line by settlers contributed to Dunmore's War, 1774.
  Hackers Creek is named after John Hacker, who violates and passes Donelson's line.
1772 Bulltown Massacre.
  Moravian missionaries founded Schoenbrunn (“beautiful spring”) in Ohio, as a mission to the Delaware Indians. The settlement grew to include sixty dwellings and more than 300 inhabitants.
1774 Shawnees, Delawares and Mingoes, fighting Virginians.
  Cherokees and Creeks attack Georgia Malitia.
  Shawnee chief Cornstalk (Holokeska), fought an American colonial army to a draw in the Battle of Point Pleasant. Cornstalk sues for peace. Cornstalk, Elenipsico his son and , RedHawk and one other Indian were murdered at Point Pleasant, while being held hostage.
  Captain William Crawford led an attack against the Mingo village on the Scioto River at the close of Lord Dunmore's War. The Mingos fled across Ohio, West Virginia and became scattered.
  Talgayeta's family butchered! An attack occurred on the West Virginia side of the river, in present-day "Hancock County. Tennessee", members of Chief Logan's settlement, including two women, were killed and scalped by the settlers.
  Lord Dumore's War. New River Notes tax lists and militia musters Collins, David. David is one of the "Melungeon" Collins (see John below) and a grandson of old Thomas d. abt 1770 in Orange Co., NC The Fincastle 1772 and 1773 list includes: David (Indian lands) 1778 Wilkes Co., NC tax list (became Ashe): Ambrose, Charles, David & George Collins. About 1782 - On list of Capt. James McDaniel's Company 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 9 cattle Collins, Elisha Elisha Collins is a brother of John Collin Sr. (see below) and a son of old Thomas Collins. Elisha was born about 1738 in Louisa Co., VA. September 6, 17 82 - Elk Creek Militia list 1777 - at Osborne's he refused to take the Oath of Allegience to Virginia . He is from Cox's company. Not on 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list. On 1790 Wilkes Co., NC census - same man or the next generation??? 1802 & 3 - land entries of 150, 150 and 200 acres in Ashe Co., NC on Lorrel fork of New River and N. fork of New River . Collins, John Collins, John, Jr. 1. Collins is sometimes a "Melungeon" name. Melungeons were a mixed race people, probably part Saponi Indian and part European. The Saponi acted as hunting guides and wilderness scouts for Virginia from the late 1600s and soon became mixed race. The Melungeons seem to descend from some of these people who lived in Louisa Co., VA along the Pamunkey River until the 1740s. After a brief stay in Lunenburg County , about 1752 the Collins, Gibson, Bolin and Bunch families appeared in what was then Granville Co., NC (later Orange ) along the Flatt River . 2. In 1771 - Several sons of Thomas Collins (d. abt 1770 Orange Co., NC) appeared on New River (Botetourt tax list, men over 16 in parentheses): Charles (1)(b. abt 1747 Louisa Co., VA), John (4), Samuel (2) and George (1), along with Charles Sexton (1), Mckegar Bunch (1) and William Sexton (1). George Collins later testifies that he moved into the area in 1767. The Fincastle 1772 and 1773 list includes: David (Indian lands), Ambrose, John, John Jr., Charles (Indian lands), Elisha, Samuel (Indian land), Lewis, George (Indian land) Collins and Micajer Bunch ( Indian Land ). 3. 1774 (Lord Dunmore's War): One of the John Collins was among those diverted to Capt. Looney's company on the Clinch and did not fight at Point Pleasant . Instead he was with Capt Looney, Lieut. Daniel Boone and Lieut. John Cox guarding the Clinch frontier. He served 35 days. 4. 1777 - John Cox's Militia Company (not sure if John Jr. or Sr.) 5. 1782 - Elk Creek Militia list (not sure if John Jr. or Sr.) 6. 1782 - Montgomery Co., VA.
1774-83 Wilmer Mayle, Henry Dalton, Gustavis Croston, James hill and other "West Hill Indians" of Barbour County serve in the American Revolution.
1776 Coharle and Lumbee fight on the side of the Americans.
  The original record or minute book of the old Virginia court, held for the District of West Augusta, first at Fort Dunmore, at Pittsburgh, afterwards on the late Gabby farm about a mile southwest of what is now the Borough of Washington, will now be presented, to be followed in a subsequent issue by the records of the court for Yohogania county (after the division of the District of West Augusta into the three new Virginia counties), held on the farm then owned by Andrew Heath near what is now West Elizabeth, in Allegheny county. Early records of the old court of Monongalia county, held at the house of Theophilus Phillips on George's Creek, Fayette county, were destroyed on the burning of the court-house at Morgantown.
1777 The Mingo and Shawnee allied themselves with the British. In 1777, a party of 350 Wyandots, Shawnees, and Mingos, armed by the British, attacked Fort Henry.
  The Treaty of Long Island of Holston.
1778 Mingo are referred to as "Senecas" in first relations with government.
  A campaign of terror against American frontier settlements, instigated by the British, begins as 300 Iroquois Indians burn Cobleskill, New York.
1779 Rebels destroy Chichamuaga Settlement. In retaliation for Indian raids on colonial settlements, American troops from North Carolina and Virginia attack Chickamauga Indian villages in Tennessee.
  American forces defeat the combined Indian and Loyalist forces at Elmira, New York. Following the victory, American troops head northwest and destroy nearly 40 Cayuga and Seneca Indian villages in retaliation for the campaign of terror against American settlers.
1781 Meherrin Indians  were living on Roanoke River in 1781 with the southern bands of Tuscarora and Saponi, and the Machapunga.
  Captain William Thomas Riddle, a reckless North Carolina Tory leader, and a Melungeon, captured two soldiers commanded by Colnel Benjamin Cleveland of the Wilkes County Militia.
1782 Massacre at Gnadenhutten.
  Wilmore Male and family move to Hampshire County, Virginia. Intermarry with the Norris Family.
  Loyalist and Indian forces attack and defeat American settlers near Lexington, Kentucky.
  Mohawk Indian Chief Joseph Brant conducts raids on settlements in Pennsylvania and Kentucky.
  The last fighting of the Revolutionary War between Americans and British occurs with a skirmish in South Carolina along the Combahee River.
1783 Detroit, Mich. Shawnees, Cherokees, Hurons, Ottowas, Chippewas, Pottawattimis, Creeks, Delawares conclude peace. Captain John Logan (Mingo) arrives late and Captain Brant (Six Nations) sends word to remain at peace.
1784 Wilmore Male II married a woman named Priscilla Harris. Her father was Catawba and her mother was a servant on the Calm's plantation in Maryland.
  Prestons, Collins's, Newmans, move into Hampshire County.
  U.S. commissioners met representatives of several Indian tribes at Ft. McIntosh in 1784-85 and concluded a treaty that called for restricting most Ohio Indians in a reserve between the Cuyahoga and Maumee rivers.
  Northwest Ordinance of 1784.
1786 Choctaw signed the Treaty of Hopewell.
  The Shawnee were coerced into yet another irregular treaty at Ft. Finney.
1787 CoL. Joseph Martin attended a Convention of Indians composed of Creeks, Cherokees, Shonies, Nontries and Nottowagoes. The Convention was held on the Mobeal River, in a Cherokee Town called Eastenouey.
  Talk Delivered by the Old Corn Tassle, a Cherokee Chief, for the Governor of Virginia, in Chota.
1788 Hannah Findley (Choctaw Slave to the Clay Family) wife of Jason Goins, brought a successful suit for her freedom in Henry County Court.
1789 Chief John Logan joined an Indian raiding party that attacked settlements in southwestern Virginia.
1790 Gates County, North Carolina. Petitioners request the legislature to pass a law validating acquisition of land by a group of descendants of Indians and blacks. the Chowan Indians recieved 11,360 acres of land in Chowan County, later Gates County. The Indians sold most of the land. The men all died, and the women mixed with negroes. The free blacks and their mixed-blood children served as soldiers for the colonials in the Revolution. Supported by William Lewis, Samuel Harrell, and other white men, they seek title to small remnants of the aforesaid tract of land."

This petition follows a pattern common among those from people attempting to acquire land set aside for Indians. Though it is obvious that the Indians still reside on the land, they infer that the remnant families have more black than Indian blood, and so, obviously do not deserve to retain title to Indian lands. This petition does go a little overboard, however, by stating that by some mysterious circumstance, all the Indian men suddenly died, and that the remaining women all mixed with negroes. Isn't it funny how they tried to make it appear they were trying to help these people by giving them title to a small piece of the land, and releasing the rest for them to grab up?

The families subject to this petition wre listed as "Other free people" in 1790 Gates Co. NC including: Abraham Reed, Benjamin Reed, Elisha Parker, George Bennett, Hardy Robbins, Hardy Reed, James Robbins, Joseph Bennett, John Cuff, Jane Reed, James Weaver, James Boon, Micajah Reed, Muney Mitchell, Rachel Reed, Seabrook Hunter, William Hunter, William Taylor, and William Jenkins.
  Maj. Gen. Josiah Harmar was sent to punish the Indian confederacy. His ill-trained army suffered humiliating defeats by Indian warriors, led by the Miami war chief Little Turtle (Meshekinoquah) in the vicinity of modern Ft. Wayne, Indiana.
1791 Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair, trying to succeed where Harmar had failed, led his army into the worst defeat ever inflicted upon the U.S. Army by Indian warriors, at a place later called Ft. Recovery.
  Big Bottom Massacre, the January 2, 1791 battle between Ohio Company settlers and the Wyandot Indians.
1792 Pretty Hair and Cherokee Sam Norris call for removal of Squatters at Hackers Creek.1789.
  Tecumseh attacks settlements at Hackers Creek.
1794 the Battle of Fallen Timbers along with the Chickamauga. Maj. Gen. “Mad” Anthony Wayne led well-trained troops to a convincing
  Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States.
1795 The Greenville Treaty of 1795 - Peekeetelemund, Black Hoof and Captain Reed, sign Treaty.
1800 Vardy Collins and Buck Gibson, settle in the Newmans Ridge/Blackwater (Hancock County, Tenn).
1801 The Mingo’s principal men and warriors of the Choctaw Nation of Indians, do hereby give their free consent, that a convenient and durable wagon way may be explored, marked, opened and made under the orders and instructions of the President of the United States.
1805 Treaty with the Chickasaw. Articles of arrangement made and concluded in the Chickasaw country, between James Robertson and Silas Dinsmoor, commissioners of the United States of the one part, and the Mingo chiefs and warriors of the Chickasaw nation of Indians on the other part.
  Treaty of Fort Industry, Ohio. With Ottawas, Wyandots, Chippewas, Pottawatamies, Shawnees, Delawares.
1807 Treaty at Detroit, Michigan. Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Pottawatamies.
1808 Treaty at Brownstown, Michigan. Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Pottawatamies.
1809 William Male, Richard Male, James Male, and George Male. Isaac Kennedy arrive in Barbour County.
1810 Occaneechi-Saponi Heads of families are listed in Patrick County, Virginia census.
  History of Baxter County Arkansas, First reference to Melungeons in written records indicating they were from Hawkins County, Tn.
1813 Stony Creek Church Minutes (1801-1814), Russell Co., Va. First local reference to Melungeons - reference to "harboring them Melungins."
1817 Treaty at Fort Meigs, Ohio. (Maumee Rapids) With Ottawas, Wyandots, Chippewas, Pottawatamies, Shawnees, Delawares and Senecas.
1818 Treaty at St. Marys, Ohio. with the Ottawas, Shawnees, Wyandots, Senecas, Weas and Miama. all of the lands north of the Greenville Treaty line in Ohio to the Great Lakes was ceded to the United States except certain small reservations at various points. Two of these were in Van Wert County - the John B. Richardville Reserve in Willshire Township, and the La Badie Reserve south of the St. Marys River, part in Willshire Township, and part in Blackcreek Township, Mercer County. The lands ceded to the St. Marys Treaty were known as the "Congress Lands."
1819 The Lett Settlement was one of the earliest African American / American Indian mixed race communities to be settled in Ohio.
1820 D.C Goins, son of Joel Weslin GOINS son of Jason Goins who is the son of Luke Goins. He is also mentioned as "Indian" in the "History of Paulding County".
  Oquanoxa's reserve. Paulding County - The largest Indian village ever located in Paulding County was Charloe, beautifully located upon the left bank of the Auglaize River in Brown Township. It was near the center of an Indian reservation, four miles square. Their chief, with about 400 Indians, dwelt there. Most of them moved west.
1823 The United States government had issued 10,958 warrants for service in the Revolutionary War totaling 1,549,350 acres, and more were issued under various laws thereafter. These warrants could only be used in the USMD except for those used in the Ohio Company lands or in the Symmes Purchase. Veterans who held on to their warrants finally received relief by the act of May 30, 1830, which allowed them to exchange their warrants for land scrip issued in 80 acre amounts, good for $1.25 an acre on land anywhere in the public domain available for private entry. This act, plus seven other warrant exchange acts, caused more than 12,138,840 acres of land scrip to be issued. Researchers will find that land scrip could be bought cheaply, depending on market conditions. Its use in land transactions does not infer the holder was entitled to it by military service. Veterans often sold their land scrip to land jobbers.
1824 Rebecca Goins is listed as "Croaton" according to her death certificate.
1828 Frederick Chavis and other free persons of color, petition inquiring if persons of Indian descent are considered to be free persons of color and liable for the poll tax. (2pages) (mentions names of Frederick Chavis, Lewis Chavis, Durany Chavis, James Jones, Bartley Jones, Mary Jones, Jonathan Williams, Polly Dunn - - "Two among them, Polly Dunn and Bartley Jones, are free people of color, but their ages-sixteen and seventeen years-exclude them from being taxed. Six others do not qualify under the term "free person of color" as they are of Indian ancestry.") Series:S165015 item:88.
1830 Indian Removal Act of 1830.
1831 Over 2000 accounted for American Indians remained in Ohio, unaccounted unknown.
  "The Slave Rebellion" of General Nat Turner, One of the largest revolts was led by the slave Nat Turner in Southampton County, Virginia. The Artis Brothers, part Cheroenhaka and Nottoway Indians, sat talking to Hark, Sam, Dred and some other men. "They have taken our land, saying we are not Indians because our mothers married black men. Now we must pay rent to the white men."
1834 An attempt was made at barring the Melungeons in Hancock County, Tenn. from voting. They carried the matter to the courts and the test plaintiff proved that he was Indian and Portuguese and had no drop of Negro Blood. The Matter was dropped and Melungeons were allowed to vote.
1835 Treaty of New Echota.
1839 George Sherman arrived in the state and now asks permission to remain in Tennessee. A certificate signed by a notary public in New York states that he is of "mulatto" complexion with wooly hair and is "an Indian, one of the Narragansett tribe.
  The US Army was hunting down Indians in North Carolina, Tennessee, and the other southeastern states, for transportation to Oklahoma. In northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia, as elsewhere, white Americans in general had grown intolerant of even the mere presence of Indians.
  John Adams (Powhatan Indian) married Nancy Prtichard, Daughter of Warner Pritchard and Sophia Goins (Choctaw, Croatan). His sister is Ruth Ann Adams.
1848 Littell's Living Age, "Society of Portuguese adventurers...who came from the long-shore parts of Virginia...intermixed with the Indians and subsequently their descendants...with the negroes and the whites".
1854 Wilmore Male patened 50 acres in Allegany County, Maryland. Deemed as "Guinea Reservation."
1855 Peter Harris, a Catawba Warrior, petition and supporting papers requesting a compensation for Revolutionary service.Series:S165015 item:26.
1857 Issac Norris, son of Sam lll and Phoebe Norris, listed as "Free." Death Record, Barbour County.
1860 All the "Mayles/Mail/Males" listed in Preston County, West Virginia Census as "Indian."
  Jacob Miner listed as Indian, wife, Ruth Ann Adams and Children who were Indian are listed as Mullato.
  Ephraim Adams listed as Indian. Mary Adams listed as Indian. Other members of the same families listed as Mulatto. (Pamunkey Indians)
1862 The U.S. Government stopped defining Indian Tribes a sovereign nations and decided they are wards of the government.
  Several mixed-decent men from "Chestnut Ridge Community" served in the West Virginia Regiments during the Civil War.
  The Confederate Government created it's own Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  Pamunkey hero Terrell Bradby escape the Confederate officer who lined up seven Pamunkey men in chains and led them up Miles Lane on the reservation to jail for helping the Union soldiers and fleeing slaves. 
1876 John Watson Miles/Mills (Pamunkey) grandson of Pamunkey Indian headman (chief) Isaac Miles and his wife Nannie Custalow Miles. Married Martha Loretta Goings in Fairfax County July 18, 1876. On the marriage certificate, the bride and groom were designated "Black."
Christopher Mills, John's brother, married, at age 65, in Kng William County in 1908. His marriage record shows him as Indian.
1886 Goodspeed's History of Tennessee, Says Newman's Ridge "has since been occupied mainly by a people presenting a peculiar admixture of white and Indian blood."
1887 Petition of Croatan Indians To the honorable the Congress of the United States, December 1887.
1889 D.C. Goins is listed as "Indian" on his death certificate in Paulding County.
  "Claim to be Portuguese - original site on the Pedee River in NC and SC...crew consisting mostly of Moors with sprinkling of Arabs and negroes turned ashore free...found wives among Indians, negroes and cast off white women...free people of color of Pedee region." Atlanta Constitution letter from Laurence Johnson.
  Article by Swan Burnett appeared in The CONSTITUTION named "Melungeons" They were the free people of color of the Pedee.
1890 Census paperwork, Melungeons in Hawkins County claim to be Cherokees of mixed blood (white, Indian and negro)...Collins and Gibson reported as Indian, Mullins white, Denham Portuguese, Goins negro...enumerated as of the races which they most resembled."
1890-91 "Claim to be Cherokee and Portuguese", some claim a drop of African blood, Collins and Gibson claimed Cherokee ancestors, "stole names of Collins and Gibson from white settlers in Virginia where they had lived previous to North Carolina." Articles by Will Allen Dromgoole, Nashville Reporter.
1891 Melungeons - First inhabitants of Hancock County, Tenn. American Notes and Queries, Volume 8. Sent to the New York Sun from Sneedville.
1897 Robert Goins et al. v. No. 127, The Choctaw Nation. Judgment, Supreme Court and Presidential Order. 200 family members admitted into the Choctaw Nation.
  "A Visit to the Melungeons" by C.F. Humble. "We know that Mullens and Moores received their names from white husbands and fathers, and we do no violence to the probabilities by assuming that the prevalent names, Collins, Gibson, Williams, Goans, Bell came in the same way."
1899 Hu Maxell in the "History of Barbour County" references the "West Virginia Guinea" or "West Hill Indians" sometimes referred to as the "G. and B. Indians" or "Cecil Indians" Sometimes the Guineas employed the circumlocution "Our People" to designate their own kind or again the name "Maleys," referring to the commonest surname (Male) among them.
1900 William Goins and Sarah M, and their family, from Tennesee, are listed as "Indian" Jackson County, Alabama.
1903 - 1914 "Called Melungeon by the local white people...not here when first hunting parties came...had land grants where they formerly lived...were the friendly Indians who came with the whites as they moved west" to the New River and Fort Blackmore...married among the whites. Names Collins, Gibson, Bolin, Bunch, Goodman, Moore, Williams, Sullivan and "others not remembered" as Indian. Lewis Jarvis, Hancock County Tn., attorney and historian.
1906 William Volney Goins, filled out an Eastern Cherokee Application following an act of Congress in that year which set aside several million dollars with which to compensate the descendants of Cherokee who lost their land under the 1835 Treaty of New Echota just prior to the Trail of Tears.
1907 Sarah Wright daughter of Jacob and Ruth (Adams) Minerd. Testifies to a Special Examiner of the Bureau of Pensions , that she and her Brother William Minerd, her Mother Ruth Ann Adams, and Grandfather John Adams, were American Indian.
  "A mixture of white, Indian and Negro...the Redbones of SC and the Croatans [now Lumbee] of North Carolina seem to be the same mixture" and "Croatoan, Redbones, Delaware Moors and Melungeons are of similar origin" and "name Melungeon is probably from melange-mixed or Portuguese." Hodges Book of American Indians north of Mexico by James Mooney.
1907-11 John Goins Welch, Principle Chief/Sachem of the Eastern Band Cherokee, from 1907 to 1911.
1913 Papers read before the Lancaster Historical Society refers to John Smith being the first white to meet the Susquehannocks. that the Dutch and Swedish referred to them as Minquas, Mingwe and Mingoes. The French called them Anadastes and Gandastouges and Carantouans and Conestogas as early as 1700. Also including Delaware, Mohawks, Mahicans, Nanticokes, Conoys and Shawnees as well as Hurons and Wendots.
1914 O.M. McPherson published the following "A Report on the Condition and Tribal Rights of the Indians of Robeson and Adjoining Counties of North Carolina" - The Croatan Indians comprise a body of mixe-blood people residing chiefly in Robeson County NC. A few of the class of people reside in Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland, Scotland, and Hoke Counties, NC, and in Sumter, Marlboro, and Dillon Counties, SC.
  In response to a senate resolution of June 30, 1914, a report on the condition and tribal rights of the Indians of robeson and adjoining counties of north carolina"..letter from the secretary of interior....by special Indian agent O.M. Mcpherson..."The Croatan Indians comprise a body of mixed-blood people residing chiefly in Robeson County, N.C, A few of the same class of people reside in Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland, Scotland, and Hoke Counties N.C., and in Sumter, Marlboro, and Dillon Counties, S.C."
1916 Thomas W. Mayle. Fort Peck. Lohmiller writes to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, that the office should "give no consideration to Thomas W. Mayle" for any of the positions at the agency in the Indian Service. Not objecting that he be reinstated, but he did not ant him employed at Fort Peck, that as a member of the tribes, Mayle "has of late been given to muckraking and criticisms of this office."
1924 Virginia's 1924 Racial Integrity Law. Virginia by the legislative expedient of requiring racial identity identifications on birth certificates be either black or white. That was the law's requirements that denied and bureaucratically assassinated Virginia Indians. Paper Genocide by "Walter Ashbly Pecker."
1930 The Virginia Vital Statistics Bureau classed all nonreservation Indians as `Negro', and it failed to see why `an exception should be made' for the Rappahannocks. The Virginia Vital Statistics Bureau insisted that certain Indian draftees be inducted into Negro units.
1936 Story about "The West Virginia Guinea." Mountain Democrat. The article was entitled Garrett County History of Pioneer Families by Charles Hoye. Family oral tradition are supported by its publication.
1939 Benjamin Reed who married Sarah Ferris the daughter of Caesar Ferris and Naomi (George?). The Ferrit/Ferris family were Pawtucket Massachusett Indians who had ventured into South Carolina. These New England Indians were part of a Diaspora out of New England and out of the New York Brotherton enclave because of the one drop rule. An indication of this type of Diaspora was George Sherman living in Tennessee in 1839 but had in his possession a certificate notarized in New York. George Sherman had a family member in South Carolina, James Sherman whose affidavit of Indian descent (Hicks, Theresa M. p305) stated that he was born in Redding Connecticut, the home of the Paugussett Indians.  Hicks(p319) also mentioned Samuel Edwards who assisted in the transportation of these New England Indians to Kentucky/ Tennessee area via Charleston S.C. was a Mashpee seaman.   Apparently some of these Indians had stayed in Charleston because in the early 1800s the city was a Mecca for free people of color. Subsisting in a piracy type culture. The Reed/Ferrit family had intermarried with those Seminoles who were bought into captivity with Osceola to Charleston for "safekeeping." They were bought to Sullivan Island off Charleston and imprisoned at Fort Moore. A few decades earlier before foreign slavery became illegal ca.1810, Sullivan Island was the place where newly arriving Africans were quarantined and prepped for the slave market. Now Sullivan Island was the place of transition for Seminoles held in captivity, to detribalize them by enslaving them by statistically changing them into Negroes. 
1946 Philip S. Proctor ("Chief" Turkey Tayac) Picataway Indians suggest study on "West Virginia Guineas" or "Wiya Nipe Lenape".
  Journal of the Washington Academy of Science. ETHNOLOGY. — Mixed bloods of the Upper Monongahela Valley, West Virginia. 1 William Harlen Gilbert, Jr., Library of Congress. Known locally as "West Virginia Guineas," numbering several thousand persons. Along "Horseshoe Run Trail," where bands of Shawnee, Cherokee, Delaware, Hurons, and other tribes made their way in going across the central Alleghenies in the Colonial period. “Numbers: Estimated to be from 8,000 to 9,000.
1947 William Gilbert published a survey of the larger mixed-blood racial islands of the Eastern United States. He followed with wider-ranging, ground breaking report for the Federal Government. Resource Material for enrollment of the Notoweega Nation. "Surviving Indian
Groups of the Eastern United States," Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and Library of Congress.
1950 Ph.D. Thesis of Edward Price, which devoted sixty-one pages to the "Melungeons of Eastern Tennessee."
1956 The Lumbee Indians are recognized in 1956. Prior to this time they were denied federal status. The Lumbee ancestors include both the Algonquian and Siouan Indian bands. Their blood is mixed with Cheraw, Tuscarora, Croatan, Cherokee Indians.
1960 West Virginia Guinea, Light, Bright, And Damned Near White: Biracial and Triracial Culture in America - Stephanie Rose Bird.
1963 Tableland Trails Publication - Wilmore Mail is listed as the first partly American Indian pioneers and early resident at Green Glades Camp.
1973 An Introduction to the Guineas: West Virginia's Melungeons. Appalachian Journal Vol. 1, No. 3, Autumn.
1975 Allegheny Lenape Band of Ohio file Federal Petition.
1975?-91 Sachem Oakey Mayle - "The West Virginia Guinea" of "The People of Chestnut Ridge" or "Wiya Nipe Lenape".
1977 Ball, Donald B. A Bibliography of Tennessee Anthropology, Including Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Melungeon Studies.
1978 Further north and west of Amherst County, Virginia there is a fairly large group of about 5,000 Indians living in the counties of Taylor and Barbour in northern West Virginia. Some of these people speak of themselves as Delawares and other identify as Cherokees. They are, at least in part, descended from Powhatan Indians from the east coast of Virginia who migrated there, plus others from a group living in Maryland right south of Washington D.C. who refer to themselves as Piscataway Indians. Some of these Indians in Taylor and Barbour Counties have, over the years, moved into southern Ohio until there is fairly respectable number now living in Vinton County, Ohio. "Cherokee Communities of the South" by Robert K. Thomas. It was submitted to the Consortium of American Indian Title IV Programs of Southeastern Michigan in 1979.
1981 Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis: Stockholm studies in comparative religion, Volume 20 by Thomas McElwain, identify "West Virginia Guineas" as of "Mingo Culture."
1983 West Virginia Guinea, Laster Tribe, West Hill Indians, Haliwa Indians, Ramapo Peaple, Etc. The Language of Ethnic Conflict: Social Organization and Lexical Culture By Irving L. Allen.
1984 Folks of the Ridge, Bound in Racial Limbo, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
1985-2000 Hereditary Sachem of the Chigamaugua Notoweega Creeks, whose Councils at the time were held in Staten Island, N.Y. Still living.
1990 The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas's People.
1998 Dancing Elk aka (Great Elk Dancer For His Elk Nation) named "War Sachem" by Staten Island Council.
  Notoweega Nation files Federal Petition under the The Chicamauga Notoweega Creeks.
2000-09 Sachem Sylvester Myrick III, Chief Raven Fox, Was the Principal Chief of the Notoweega Nation.
2002 Sachem Shiela Payne and Notoweega Delegate attend Nottoway Council meeting in South Hampton, others attending were Calvin Hall, Chief of the Meherrin, Pat Holley of the Canadian Iroquois confederation Six Nations of the Grand River and Helen Roundtree.
2003 Allegheny Lenni-Lenape Tribal Council Inc. of West Virginia is Dissolved. By William Kennedy.
2005 Winkler, Wayne. Walking Toward the Sunset: the Melungeons of Appalachia.
  Melungeons: the last lost tribe in America By Elizabeth Hirschman.
2006 South Carolina State Recognition and Covenant Agreement with "Eastern Cherokee and Southern Iroquois & United Tribes of S.C."
  First Public Gathering held in Logan, Ohio.
2009-Pres Great Elk Dancer For His Elk Nation aka (Dancing Elk) became Head Sachem of the Notoweega Nation.
2010 Rescinds request for Federal Recognition - Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  Held Grand Council of Ohio Tribes, Glenford, Ohio
  Opens, Casino.
2011 Notoweega Nation sends letter to Governor John Kasich of Ohio.
  Notoweega attend "Medicine Games." Talks with Chata and Maques in Akwesasne.
2013 Files 1983 Case and Treaty Violations Suit in Federal Court - Ohio Southern District Court Eastern Division.
  Ohio State recognition
  Host "The Longest Walk 4."
  Sponsors "Idle no more" event at, Ohio State Capitol Building.
  Covenant Agreement and Alliance with the Schaghticoke Nation.
2014 Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Correspondence - Letter to U.S. Senators.
  Kendra Payne, becomes new Sachem of Nottoway Ohio Band.
  Inclusion into the Algonquin Confederacy.
  First Tribe in U.S. to offer Internet Gaming.
  Notoweega Nation Attorney "Phillip Gerth" Files "Amicus Brief" in Federal Court.
  Canupa Gluha Mani, reads Notoweega Nation Letter of Introduction at the Lakota Campaign for Independence, Sponsored by Chiricahua Apache, in New Mexico.


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